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CODES & STANDARDS
Failure Control have been involved in the formulation of a number of Engineering Standards and Codes of Practice, principally in the areas of structural engineering and pressure vessels.
International Standards Organisation (ISO)
Failure Control undertook a project to define recommended S-N curves for the analysis of metal fatigue of welded joints in offshore installations under wide band variable amplitude loading. This work has involved a review of constant and variable amplitude experimental data for environmental loading in air and in seawater, and the formulation of recommendations for the curves to be used in the ISO standard. The recommendations were subject to extensive validation and included an assessment of the method of damage calculation and the Miners number at failure. Fracture mechanics based fatigue calculations were used in the low cyclic stress region for very long endurances (greater than 10,000,000 cycles) because of the lack of experimental endurance data.
British Standards Institute (BSI)
Failure Control formulated revised fatigue crack growth data for structural/pressure vessel steels and stainless steels as part of the update of PD6493 to BS7910. We found that the “Paris Law” with a fixed slope was an over simplification of material behaviour, particularly at low stress intensities. New bi-linear Paris constants were developed as more precise replacements. Existing fatigue thresholds were reviewed and found to be satisfactory except for stainless steels and ferritic / martensitic steels in seawater under free corrosion conditions.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
In the UK, the Offshore Safety Division of the Health and Safety Executive offered guidance on good practice through their publication "Offshore Installations: Guidance on design, construction and certification" (ISBN 0 11 412961 4).
This provides detailed design guidance for oil rigs working on the UK Continental Shelf. Failure Control were closely involved with the latest amendments and have acted as technical editors in providing a commentary on changes to the fatigue requirements. (Health and Safety Executive Report OTO 1999 058, publ. HSE Books).
Shell commissioned Failure Control to prepare an internal engineering standard (ERD) on the use of fracture mechanics as a guide to their own staff, suppliers and sub-contractors.